Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum Overview / Policy – 2021 / 22
Staff Responsible- Head of Early Years
Review – Yearly
Every child deserves the best possible start in life and the support that enables them to fulfil their potential. Children develop quickly in the early years and a child’s experiences between birth and age five have a major impact on their future life chances. A secure, safe and happy childhood is important in its own right. Good parenting and high-quality early learning together provide the foundation children need to make the most of their abilities and talents as they grow up. (Statutory framework for the early years foundation stage, DfE, 2021)
Aims of the EYFS in the Vale of Evesham School
- To provide a relevant curriculum which is play based, child led and is also broad, balanced, enjoyable and exciting.
- For pupils to reach their full potential during the Early Years.
- To prepare pupils for lifelong learning and nurture an enjoyment for learning and building the foundations for learning
- To develop partnerships with people that are important for the child
- To support and promote all the EYFS areas of development and the Characteristics of Effective learning
- To ensure that all children are safeguarded
- To provide equal opportunities for the pupils.
We will follow the over Arching Principles of the EYFS which are:
- every child is a unique child, who is constantly learning and can be resilient, capable, confident and self-assured
- children learn to be strong and independent through positive relationships
- children learn and develop well in enabling environments with teaching and support from adults, who respond to their individual interests and needs and help them to build their learning over time. Children benefit from a strong partnership between practitioners and parents and/or carers.
- importance of learning and development. Children develop and learn at different rates
Due to all of the children within Early Years at the Vale of Evesham school having additional needs and already being identified as having a delay with their development, working in the 0 – 3 years band of the Development matters before they start with us we intend to focus on the Prime areas of development: Communication and Language, Personal, Social and Emotional Development and Physical Development. Characteristics of Effective Learning. Thinking and Literacy (including synthetic phonics) are also given high priority especially in Reception. We also plan to develop all areas of development from the EYFS with all children, we offer plenty of creative and understanding the world opportunities as well to develop the characteristics of effective learning and cultural capital as well as continued work on the prime areas that arise during these activities.
In the EYFS classes children are supported to develop the essential early learning skills that allow them to sit and take part in adult activities as part of a group and to actively learn. As the children move into Reception there is a gradual change of emphasis as they are encouraged to take part in more adult led learning activities. We aim for the children to reach their potential and have as much access to mainstream as possible and we liaise with the mainstream settings and work together for the children that are on split places.
We have a Nursery Assessment Class where the pupils are referred to us by Pre School Forum for a period of assessment. The focus of this time for the pupil in Nursery is to assess to see what support is needed for the child entering school (mainstream or specialist) and take the lead on completing the request for an Education Health and Care Plan where appropriate. Alongside this we provide the children with specialist support to help them make as much progress with their development as possible. We encourage the children to attend a mainstream setting alongside us as much as possible.
School age children will have an Education, Health and Care plan naming the school. Some children may continue to be split place with their local mainstream school.
We can accept children on assessment places in school in exceptional circumstances with agreement from Worcestershire Children First and the School.
The Early Years Foundation Stage is for children from birth to the end of Reception (the academic year in which they turn five).
Characteristics of Effective learning
The characteristics of effective learning help us to focus on and understand how children learn. Following characteristics of young children’s learning enables them to become effective lifelong learners. We look for and think about how the children learn when accessing all areas of development.
The characteristics of effective Learning will feed into the engagement scales in Key Stage One.
The characteristics of effective learning are split into three different areas:
Playing and Exploring
Our classroom environments are set up to actively encourage and offer children the opportunity to play, explore and investigate using open ended activities. Play is essential for children’s development. Children learn by leading their own play, and by taking part in play which is guided by adults.
We provide opportunities for children to follow their interests for extended periods of time, fully engaged in what they are doing and concentrating deeply. In their activities, children will be encouraged to persist in the face of challenge or difficulty, thereby developing a resilient disposition.
Creative and Critical Thinking
Children will have many different opportunities to be creative – generating new ideas, being inventive, finding problems and challenges and figuring out their own ways to solve them. Adults will be attentive to individual children’s interests and will provide new materials and experiences to extend and enhance these processes. We try wherever possible to give children more autonomy in how they approach tasks and focusing on the process of problem solving, not just on the final outcome.
Areas of Development
In the EYFS framework there are 7 areas of development 3 prime and 4 specific areas. The prime areas begin to develop in response to relationships and experiences, and run through and support learning in all other areas. The prime areas continue to be fundamental throughout the EYFS. The prime areas are the main focus alongside the characteristic of effective learning. At the Vale of Evesham School Thinking Skills incorporates Mathematics and the other specific areas. The specific areas grow out of the prime areas, and provide important contexts for learning. The prime areas of learning, Characteristics of Effective Learning as well as Thinking are given priority in Early Years and then in Reception the focus on Literacy and Thinking increases.
Communication and Language (CAL)- This is also taught throughout the day every day and built in to every situation. In Nursery we provide adult led communication activities each day working towards personal targets in conjunction with the Speech and Language therapist. In reception and Year 1 the children have adult led communication groups working towards personal targets at least twice each week.
CAL will feed into Communication in the Pre Formal curriculum and Semi Formal in Key stage One.
Personal Social and Emotional Development (PSED)- This is taught throughout the day every day and in every activity. It will be a priority in child-initiated learning both inside and outside. We will work at building relationships, with peers and staff, sharing and turn taking as well as make a choice. Managing behaviours and emotions throughout the day is also a high priority. We also work towards the children being able to play and access adult led learning in a group.
PSED will feed into All about Me and beyond in the Semi Formal Curriculum and Social Emotional and Mental Health (SEMH) in the Pre Formal Curriculum at Key Stage One.
Physical Development (PD)- We try to develop personal care and independence skills during snack, lunch and toileting routines every day. We also provide activities to develop gross and fine motor skills in child initiated play. We also have adult led activities with physical skills as the main focus four times a week. For many of our children their gross motor skills are a strength. For these children a big part of their physical development will be around the sensory processing and this will be supported by a range of sensory diet opportunities. Children with more significant issues around movement, physical development and mobility may follow the MOVE programme and assessment alongside physio plans
Thinking –Thinking skills incorporates early maths skills as well as developing skills around object permanence, anticipation, cause and effect and problem solving. Some mark making, book skills, imaginary play and construction. There are adult led sessions with a thinking focus as well as developing thinking skills in child initiated play.
Mathematics is mainly taught in thinking skills but our most able Reception and Year 1 pupils will have more of a Mathematical focus during the adult led activities as well as opportunities to develop any interests around mathematics during child-initiated play. Understanding the World – Our most able Reception pupils will have opportunities to learn more in this area through topic-based approach. For most children in Early Years the main focus of this area will be developing the characteristics of effective learning.
Thinking and Mathematics will feed into Cognition in the Pre Formal Curriculum and Thinking Skills and Numeracy in the Semi Formal Curriculum at Key Stage One.
Literacy – Every early years class has a book area with a selection of suitable books for all the children in the group. We also have an adult led story time each day. Mark making opportunities are available in child initiated play and may include activities to develop fine motor skills. We also have adult led mark making activities. In adult led sessions we also develop understanding of letters and sounds. In Nursery we work on Phase 1. In Reception and Year 1 we continue to work on early reading skills including systematic synthetic phonics, symbolic development and book knowledge.
Literacy will feed into Communication and Literacy in the Semi Formal Curriculum and Communication in the Pre Formal Curriculum at Key Stage One.
Reading – in EYFS Adults support children to develop a love of books and stories. The children have a story time each day when they explore a story in a multisensory way as part of a group. In the nursery development of reading in its widest sense (understanding of objects, miniatures, pictures and symbols) and development of early narrative understanding is often the focus of learning at group time. In reception children have reading time each day. They take part in small group or 1:1 activities to develop communication and language skills and early decoding skills using a range of approaches including ‘reading’ pictures and symbols, whole word recognition and synthetic phonics.
Understanding the World (UW)– this includes the areas of: people and communities, the world and technology. Much of this links to the learning the children do within PSED and the characteristics and effective learning.
The children will learn about cultures and celebrations in relation to their group and topics. They will also work on being a part of the class and school community. We will explore the world around us with our senses, this is supported with messy play and other exploratory activities. Use of technology in to other activities but we also try to limit the screen time available to young children in Early Years. As many have a lot of screen time at home and it use of tablets and screen devices can be a trigger for some behaviours.
UW will feed into Cognition and SEMH in the Pre formal Curriculum and How my world works and My Place in the World at Key stage One
Expressive Arts and Development (EAD)– We provide opportunities to be creative in imaginative play activities, arts and crafts, music and dance in both adult led and child led situations. An important part of this area is around developing characteristics of effective learning and Personal Social and Emotional Development. This is often delivered through a topic-based approach.
EAD will feed into Sensory in the Pre Formal Curriculum and Creativity in the Semi Formal Curriculum at Key Stage One.
The planning cycle of planning, observing and evaluating is used and observations of the children and assessment will inform all levels of planning. We use aspects of the In the Moment Planning approach (Anna Ephgave)
Each class will have a continuous provision document which outlines what is available in the learning environment to meet the needs to that class each year promoting and supporting the areas of development and characteristics of effective learning.
Long Term planning
This is completed on a two-yearly cycle and makes sure that there is an appropriate balance of all the areas of development and a range of themes ensuring continuity and progression as they move up the school.
Medium Term planning
This is completed for each theme by the class teacher each half term. The planning is around the learning opportunities and activities and enhancements to the continuous provision that will be carried out. In Reception there will be detailed planning for adult led Literacy and Thinking sessions and separate from the other areas of development. Nursery planning with be all in one document. Planning is differentiated to meet the individual needs of the pupils.
Short Term Planning
This is completed weekly or when required and outlines what learning opportunities that will be available that week and desired outcomes. This will include adult led learning times and child led play time plan – This is influenced by feedback from the previous weeks plans and learning that has taken place. All planning should be kept on the server within Curriculum Planning – Early Years. Short Term Planning should be available in class for all the class team.
Observations of the children will be made throughout and adults will respond in the moment. Observation will be recorded using Tapestry. Observations during adult led learning will also be recorded in writing and link to the desired learning objectives of the adult led activities. Proformas are on the server for this and available in class. These will be kept in the child’s learning journey and used to inform planning and target setting. All staff working with the children will take part in observations and recording them. Each child should have one Tapestry observation of them each day (every two sessions for Nursery children) with a balance across all areas of development. Recorded observations should show new learning and wow moments.
Child Initiated learning
Play is vital to the Early Years Foundation Stage as it underpins all development and learning for young children. Some of the children at our school will need adult support to play or learn to play; however, many will play on their own and with peers. For child initiated learning we follow the planning in the moment approach set out by Anna Ephgrave. Adults teach the children during play by modelling communication and language, demonstrating, supporting, encouraging, facilitating challenge, commentating play and having fun. We have a continuous provision for child-initiated learning where opportunities for all areas of development are available. The learning environments are thought out to meet the continuous provision and learning needs of all the children in the class. We provide opportunities both inside and outside. We follow Elizabeth Jarmin’s communication friendly approach to learning environments.
Within the child initiated learning there will be opportunities for children practice and apply what they have learnt in previous adult led activities to help secure this in their long term memory.
Adult Led Learning
There are a range of adult led activities throughout the day. Some may be 1:1, or small group and some may be with the whole class they will also vary on length of time depending on the child. Adult led activities will have a focus of an area of development but may have opportunities to develop other areas too. To teach the skills required for these tasks we use the Language for Learning resources by Sue Hayden and Emma Jordan. Many of the children need a high level of structure and routine to complete adult led learning and for these children we use aspects of the TEACCH approach where they will access their adult led learning using workboxes. There is a balance between pupil led activities and adult led activities when the younger children will access more pupil led activities and the older children will access more adult led structured activities, preparing for more structured and adult led lessons as they move up the school. In Nursery pupils will have two adults led together times during a session, an adult led focus session where they will be working on their targets in a small group or 1:1. There will also be another adult led activity available during child led time each session. In Reception and Year one there will be adult led sessions for literacy, thinking each day, these will be taught in small groups or 1:1. There will also be a circle time and a story each day. Alongside this there will be a different curriculum area in an adult led activity. The school day will be structured and follow routines to support the children’s learning and understanding. We use many of the TEACCH principles within the Early Years Foundation Stage.
This is an approach used with many of our children devised by Dr Dave Hewitt. This approach is a way of implementing our aims to develop Communication and Language and Personal, Social and Emotional Development. Intensive Interaction is also a fundamental part of communication and play within the Early Years. For more information see the school policy on Intensive Interaction
Children in the Early Years Foundation Stage will access learning both inside and outside and both areas are of equal importance. We will have times throughout the day when both inside and outside areas are available but each we will have times where only the outside or only the inside are available to ensure that all children access each area. The environment is carefully set up each day for learning play opportunities and the safety of the environment and the equipment is also considered. Risks that are in the environment are assessed, these are shared with all staff, they are available in the classroom and on the server. They will be updated when the situation changes, adapted for weather issues and reviewed regularly. Part of learning is to allow the children to learn to assess risks themselves.
Working with parents / carers
We work very closely with parents and carers sharing information and learning with them. We use Tapestry online learning journey so parents can see observations and learning that has happened during the school day. Parents are also able to share observations from home. In Reception should be completed on Tapestry each day as a minimum. In Nursery an observation should be completed for each two sessions that they attend as a minimum. We also share information with parents at meetings (each term), regular contact by phone to promote partnership working with parent alongside chats at pick up and drop off times. We work with the parents through home visits, visits into to Nursery and School, Stay and Play sessions and meetings when they are starting school and Nursery to aid a smooth transition.
Working with other professionals
Many of our pupils also attend another setting. We liaise with these settings about the individual children and their learning needs. All our children have some health needs and we work closely with health professionals that are supporting our children, especially with Speech and Language Therapists. We also work with social care where appropriate. We work with other professionals – Physiotherapist, Speech and Language Therapist and other therapists which link to the school. We carry out programmes set by them to achieve specific targets for the individuals. We share the programmes and targets with parents/ carers and other settings.
Where children in Nursery are known to the Child Development Team (CDT) we liaise with them and contribute to the Pre School Umbrella Diagnostic meetings and assessments.
There is an Outreach Liaison Practitioner whose role it to link up with all other mainstream settings where the children are split place to ensure we work together for the child.
Team around the child
In Nursery the children will have a team around the child meeting each term. This is will both professionals and parents/carers.
We use total communication in the Early Years Foundation Stage. This includes, sign a long, TaSSels (on body signs), photographs, objects of reference, situational cues, symbols as well as key word language and body language. All staff will carry photo / symbol visuals on them when with the pupils. Multi Sensory Learning For pupils with sensory impairments we will work to reduce the barriers and make all activities accessible. All children use their senses to learn. Activities are made as sensory as possible and the children access sessions in the sensory room. We have many pupils that have difficulties with sensory processing and a range of sensory diet activities will be available for these individuals.
EAL and children with different cultures
Children with English as an Additional Language (EAL) are provided opportunities for children to develop and use their home language in play and learning, supporting their language development at home. We also ensure that children have sufficient opportunities to learn in the English language as well as embrace their own. We celebrate the different cultures and disabilities of all the pupils in the EYFS this is reflected in learning resources as well as activities.
Key Person Approach.
We tend not follow the typical approach for key people within our setting. All adults work with all the children and the legal Key Person will be the Class Teacher for all of the children. In Nursery we give each child a key person to form a positive relationship with both the child and the family. This person will also focus on their key children for observations and link with parents. This relationship is also really important for safeguarding. Parents will know who their child’s key person is.
A key person may be given to pupils in Reception that still need to work on developing positive relationships with adults. This is especially important during transition times.
Educational visits and learning outside the classroom are encouraged where appropriate. Reception and Year 1 classes will have regular Forest School and Swimming opportunities and aim for an educational visit each half term. We follow the school’s policies on educational visits and learning outside the classroom.
In the early years the children are assessed using the Vale of Evesham Early years assessment framework, which is based on the Worcestershire Early Support Document which is used in Worcestershire Early Years settings to support children with SEND.
The early stages of development are broken down into small steps in the areas: Communication and Language Personal, Social and Emotional Development Physical Development Thinking Skills Literacy (Reception working at step 5 or above)
All staff in EYFS will observe learning during both child initiated and adult led times. Observations are recorded in observation proformas and also with photos and videos. These are recorded on the Tapestry app and help to share the learning with parents and carers and also other team members which is important when working in a larger team. Observations are also made on their response to the learning environment and continuous provision these are recorded on the planning and informs the following weeks planning. These observations will then be linked to a step with in an area a recorded on the pupil’s individual assessment record. Each child’s learning and progress is celebrated in their ‘Learning Journey’.
Summative assessment is completed each term and recorded which step the child is secure at in each area of the Vale of Evesham School Early Support assessment framework. For new pupils a baseline summative assessment is also completed during the first half term that they attend. We also use this to look at the progress the children are making and if it a good level of development which forms part of the assessment for Education, Health and Care Plans and support needed for going into school. This assessment also informs planning, target setting and where interventions and additional support may be needed.
We aim for the children to work towards achieving the Early Learning Goals. Many of the children are still working towards these and we break down the steps before this in our Vale of Evesham Early Support Assessment Framework. If children are working past this framework, we also use the birth to five matters to support further assessment.
We complete the EYFS profile for children at the end of reception and report this information to parents, Year 1 teachers and the local authority.
We will make best endeavours to complete the Reception Baseline Assessment for children in their first six weeks of Reception with all children, however, it is not suitable for all our children and the Head Teacher will disapply children that this applies to.
Each year class teachers will complete a short report to go to parents and carers. This will describe progress the child has made within the areas of development and characteristics of learning. They will also report the levels that the child is working is using the Vale of Evesham School Early Support Assessment.
N1 / Two-year-olds that access the Nursery will have a report for their two year progress check covering the Prime Areas of Development
N2 Three- and Four-Year-olds will have a report that covers the Prime Areas, Thinking, Characteristics of Effective Learning
Reception will have a report covering the same as Nursery but also Literacy and the progress linked with their EHCP targets.
Each child will have a Learning Journey and this is where all their observations, targets and any work produced will be kept. They will be regularly marked and assessed for learning against the Vale of Evesham School Early Support and Early Learning Goals. Learning Journeys will be part of the school’s work scrutiny and monitoring routines.
Internal moderation occurs each term and all Early Years staff looking at observations and the step it links to in the Vale of Evesham School Early Support Assessment Framework. We also take part in Network meeting with the other special schools in Worcestershire with Early Years classes. As well as this we are developing links with other schools in the trust with Early Years and SEN. This moderation will form part of the supervision staff receive.
Children have next step targets set and reviewed termly. These are set from information provided by the assessment and will inform planning. For pupils that have an EHCP these targets will link with the targets set out in their EHCP and annual reviews.
There will a focus for monitoring each year
Monitoring will include: learning walks, lesson observations, scrutiny of Tapestry, learning journeys, planning, BSPs, Risk Assessments and Safe systems of work, targets / next steps by Head of Early Years and the Senior Leadership Team.
Pastoral Information for Early Years
First Aid and Medicines Management
There will be a minimum of 1 paediatric qualified first aider in each Early Years class and they can also access support from other paediatric first aiders in school. There must be a qualified Paediatric first aider with the group when they go off the school site. Pupils with medical issues and medication will have a red folder with care plans and record of medication given. These will be kept in class and medication is locked in the medicine cabinet in the class. Nursery and Early Years classes will follow the school’s medication policies. Nursery pupils are able to access support from the special school nurse unless they are known to Orchard Services when this is the case support for Nursery will be provided by Orchard Services.
Each phase meeting mental health issues for pupils are raised and discussed. We record ACE using sleuth and CPOMs to inform staff of these in the future. We follow the school procedure for mental health. All Early Years staff to have training in trauma and attachment as well as mental health.
We follow the school’s behaviour policy. Behaviour incidents are recorded on Sleuth this is monitored by SLT, Head of Early Years and shared at phase meetings with all staff. Children that have shown difficulties with their behaviour will have a behaviour Support Plan. This is shared with parents, the class team and others that work with the pupil. It is reviewed regularly as behaviours or the situation changes.
Safeguarding and Child Protection
Safeguarding is given a top priority in Early Years and we follow the schools safeguarding policy. Food and Drink There will be daily snack sessions in Early Years classes and dinner time too. This is important learning time. All staff will be aware of allergies and eating and drinking plans for individual children and this will be displayed in the classroom.
We work with families, other settings and professionals to plan transitions for individuals coming into school and Nursery. This will include visits to settings, home visits and meetings and phased settling in where appropriate. Stay and Play sessions also support children starting Nursery.
Staffing, Continuing Professional Development
The classes within Early Years will have suitable people working in them. The school follows safer recruitment and the ratios for the different age groups and the staff’s qualifications. Staff are experienced in working with both young children and children with additional needs.
We offer a range of professional development for all staff. Some training will be around supporting the specialist needs but we also have some Early Years specific training in place for all Early year’s staff. This supports the staff that do not have a formal Early year’s specific qualification.
During the curriculum time on alternate Thursday after school meeting is when we look at Early years specific training as well as moderation and Supervision.
Staff will have group and individual supervision. The focus of this is to discuss any issues arising around the child’s development, behaviour and well being and Identify solutions to these issues. As well as continuing to improve their practice and effectiveness in supporting the children.
TAs will have supervision with the class teacher and teachers will have supervision with the Head of Early Years. The Head of Early Years can have supervision with the SLT.
Supervision will also be provided around child protection concerns; this will be supported by DSL / DDSLs where appropriate
If an Early Years class or bubble has to close due to Covid 19 or Covid 19 related issues or if a child has to self-isolate due to covid then staff will post home learning on Tapestry. Where suitable, resources will be sent home to support learning. Daily contact will be made using tapestry, email or phone calls. Home Learning will include a mix of the curriculum areas and activities and advise given to parents around how to support the learning.
Recommendations for timings within EYFS
Each Nursery Session
15 – 20 mins – circle time
15 – 20 mins – Adult led focus work – Communication and Language small group or 1:1
15 mins – snack – PD, CAL, and PSED
30 mins – Activity – alongside Child initiated learning and toileting and completed 1:1 and small groups. The focus will be a mixture across the week. 1 Forest, 1 PE, 2 Sensory room (thinking) 1 thinking, 2 or 3 EAD including 1 music-based and 1 art-based, 1 or 2 UW.
|Morning session||Afternoon Session|
|9:00 – 9:30||Child initiated Learning||12:30 – 1:00||Child initiated Learning|
|9:30 – 9:45||Circle time||1:00 – 1:15||Circle time|
|9:45 – 10:15||Activity and child-led learning. Toileting.||1:15 – 1:45||CAL – Adult led group / 1:1 focus time|
|10:15 – 10:30||Snack||1:45 – 2:15||Activity and child-led learning. Toileting.|
|10:30 – 11:00||Child initiated Learning||2:15 – 2:30||Snack|
|11:00 – 11:25||CAL – Adult led group / 1:1 focus time||2:30 – 2:45||Child initiated Learning|
|11:25 – 11:30||Blue Mat – reflection and transition home||2:45 – 3:00||The story, reflection, and transition home|
For children that attend all day. 11:30 – 12:00 – Child initiated learning, Song basket, hand washing and toilet. Transition to lunch and lunch time.
In Reception, there will be daily circle time, daily Literacy and CAL sessions, daily Thinking sessions, daily story, reflection time. Across the week they will have a Forest School session and a PE session. Each half term they will also have a swimming session once a week in place of daily literacy and numeracy. There will be four sessions each week for EAD and UW. There may be opportunities to focus on UW for longer such as a theme day or afternoon. There will also be three CAL / PSED sessions each week. PSED is intrinsic across all activities but it is a part of the circle time as well. There will be a daily story and reflection time at the end of each day.
When completing Literacy, Thinking and CAL there will be a mixture of small group and 1:1 adult-led activities and when children are not taking part in these they will access child-led learning in the continuous provision.
Some children will access the Autism Resource Centre( ARC) This will focus on either their thinking, Literacy, or CAL and will be planned in liaison between the ARC and the class teacher.
Assemblies – 30 mins per half term and join in with wider school events where appropriate to the individuals.
|Circle time||15 – 20 mins daily – PSED CAL Literacy|
|Literacy||30 mins 4 / 5 times a week – including phonics – some CAL and PSED work included too|
|Thinking||30 mins 4 / 5 times a week|
|Physical Development||30 mins weekly PE session in the hall
½ Day Forest school
30 mins weekly 15 x a year half termly
30 mins weekly additional PE weekly in the studio when not swimming
Outside patio available throughout the day
45 mins daily – Snack and dinner
30 mins daily Big playground
|CAL||2 x 30 mins CAL groups a week|
|EAD / UW||4 x 30 min sessions a week
Including at least – 1 X Music focus and 1 Media and Media
UW – Across the year a mixture of our world, communities and people and technology
|Story and Reflection||15 mins daily|
|CIL / Continuous Provision||All other times both inside and outside